Great Articles written by Bruce Stark
These articles are posted here with author,
Mr. Bruce Stark's permission.
Reproduction or publication of any of these articles without his permission is prohibited.
If you want to know more, buy his book
The Pasadena Days The Years 1966-1972
Auto Mag Parts ? --- August 2009
An Interview with Max Gera & the Auto Mag --- April 2009
Is It Original? --- June 2001
Five Ways To Break Your Auto Mag --- September 1999
Auto Mag Cartridges --- March 1999
Is It Original? --- June 2001
by Bruce Stark
No one wants to be taken advantage of. As a buyer or a seller, most of us
have made our share of mistakes. One mistake is to buy or sell an item that we
do not have an intimate knowledge of. In some cases we may rely on the knowledge
of the other party to help us establish a fair price. Sometimes we later
discover that we have been cheated out of a valuable item or into an item that
is not worth what we thought it was. Knowledge is power.
How do you respond to a customer who has just said, "It's too bad that your Lee Jurras gun is not an original Auto Mag"?
The word "original" has many different meanings. When this word is thrown around during the bargaining process, as in the example above, the buyer might be trying to get an upper hand through the implication that what you have is un-original. It then logically follows that your gun could be a copy, after-market, reproduction, or even a fake. In any case, you are now put on the defensive.
What do you say to the seller who proclaims that his Pasadena Auto Mag is original, and not one of those later made copies you see out there?
If the definition of "original" is taken to mean the first, then only the Pasadena guns could be considered to be original Auto Mags. Literally speaking, only the number one prototype gun could qualify as the first.
Ironically this particular gun was not made of stainless steel and may not fit the definition of an Auto Mag.
Obviously an "original" Auto Mag would be a gun you would want as a sound investment, and a gun that would command the highest price. Let's review the facts.
Auto Mags were made from 1971 until the year 2000 using one of eleven different names on the receiver.
1) AM, Pasadena, California
2) TDE, North Hollywood, California
3) TDE, El Monte, California
4) TDE, El Monte, California, High Standard
5) TDE, El Monte, California, Lee Jurras
6) TDE, El Monte, California, Kent Lomont
7) TDE / OMC, El Monte, California
8) AMT, Covina, California
9) AMC, Covina, California
10) AM, Irwindale, California
11) AM, Sturgis, South Dakota
The first nine names were manufactured under the direction, or with the authorization of the inventor, Harry Sanford. The guns using the last two names were manufactured under license of Harry's widow and son, Nadine and Walt Sanford.
All of the above guns are original Auto Mags. "Original" here is defined as authentic. After all, isn't that what a seller and a buyer need to know before a fair sale can take place? If all of these guns are authentic, then what are the guns that some have called fakes and why are some collectors still gun shy about Auto Mags as investments?
GUNS AND PARTS THAT HAVE BEEN QUESTIONED
The following examples are listed in chronological order.
The prototype, experimental, engraved and .45ACP Auto Mags are well documented in the author's book Auto Mag: The Pasadena Days. These are not guns that collectors will readily encounter.
1. Barrels made to deceive - Pasadena
For all intents and purposes, only 6.5" .44AMP barrels were made during the Pasadena production run of Auto Mags. From time to time, barrels in different calibers and lengths have been found to have Pasadena markings. These are later made barrels that the guys in the back room marked for a buddy or a cash-wielding customer. The only reason to mismark a barrel is so it can be sold for more than it would otherwise.
2. Custom Barrels - Barbasiewicz
The North Hollywood guns were the next production run of Auto Mags. B & B Sales in North Hollywood, California distributed these El Monte manufactured guns. Bob Barbasiewicz was Harry's production manager and head of engineering at the time. He was one of three employees that Harry retained from the Pasadena factory. Bob had lost his own personal mill to the Pasadena bankruptcy auction, and perhaps because of this Harry allowed him to produce his own line of custom barrels. Bob sold these unmarked, highly polished barrels through B & B Sales. The lack of markings was probably due to the fact that, for warranty reasons, the owner of TDE, James C. Thomas III, did not want his company's name on Bobs' barrels. These barrels used Pasadena receivers (barrel extensions), accelerators and rear sight assemblies. Harry authorized the manufacture of these barrels and they were sold through the appropriate distributor. I believe it would be accurate to call these barrels "custom barrels."
3. Barrels made to deceive - Barbasiewicz
Occasionally a Barbasiewicz barrel is found to have Pasadena or North Hollywood markings. If the guys in the back room marked one of these barrels, then the barrel should be considered "made to deceive."
4. Mismatch of barrel to frame - High Standard
In April of 1974, High Standard commissioned about 135 Auto Mags to be built using the High Standard logo. Don Mitchell was High Standard's CEO at the time. Don told the author that only 135 "H" prefix serial numbered guns were ordered from Auto Mag by High Standard. All 135 were to be 6.5", .44AMP guns in field grade condition. Don said that no other calibers or barrel lengths were ordered. The eventual production was 134 "H" prefix guns, 108 in .44AMP and 26 in .357AMP.
The exclusive distribution rights for the Auto Mag were then sold to Lee Jurras sometime before September of 1974. The prevailing story was that the factory was stuck with many barrels already marked High Standard and they put them on "A" prefix serial numbered frames to use them up. Although this is how the gun left the factory, these guns are a mismatch of barrel to frame because High Standard never commissioned them. A 1998 book by James Spacek titled Hi-Standard Pistols & Revolvers 1951 – 1984 revealed that several thousand "A" prefix serial numbers were reserved in High Standards books for assignment of Auto Mag serial numbers. A thorough investigation of High Standards records by John J. Stimson Jr. shows that exactly 134 "H" prefix Auto Mags were sold by High Standard in 1974. The records also show that 911 "A" prefix Auto Mags went through High Standards books in 1974 and 1975.
1) There is no evidence of a High Standard ad campaign to sell "A" prefix Auto Mags.
2) There is evidence that the TDE El Monte factory did have an ad campaign and did in fact sell High Standard Auto Mags during this period of time.
3) Lee Jurras was the exclusive worldwide distributor of Auto Mags during this period of time, not High Standard and not the factory.
What purpose might have been served by entering the serial numbers in the serial number log if High Standard in fact did not sell them?
Perhaps the factory was selling guns out of the back door to circumvent Lee Jurras' exclusive distribution rights, but why the High Standard records entries?
5. Barrels made to deceive - High Standard
Over the years custom highly polished barrels in different calibers and lengths have been seen with High Standard markings. Based on the author's interview with Don Mitchell, these barrels should be considered nothing other than "made to deceive." A collector at the time ordered several custom High Standard barrels from the factory. These barrels have less than no connection to High Standard.
6. Mismatch of barrel to frame? - Lee Jurras
While Lee Jurras was a distributor of Auto Mags he produced many beautiful
custom guns. There were:
235 Custom Model 100's Custom Hunters .44AMP, .41JMP & .357AMP
11 Custom Model 200's Internationals .357AMP
1 Custom Model 200 International Bicentennial .357AMP
9 Custom Model 300's Alaskans .44AMP
5 Custom Model 400's Backpackers .44AMP & .357AMP
5 Custom Model 500's Grizzly's .44AMP
2 Custom Model 600's Condors .44AMP
1 with no model number Cougar .30AMP
2 with no model number Metallic Silhouettes .41JMP & .357AMP
While Lee held the exclusive distribution rights, he used "LEJ" as the prefix in his serial numbers. After Lee gave up his exclusive distribution rights, he used standard "A" prefix serial numbered frames on his custom guns.
Apparently, the factory sold Lee Jurras marked guns and barrels that did not go through Lee's hands. The barrels on these guns have Lee's lion's head but do not contain the "Custom Model 100" markings as the Lee Jurras distributed barrels did. They also did not come with Lee's custom zebra wood grips or the "Gun-Ho" case.
The author does not know what arrangements the factory made, if any, with Lee to distribute these Jurras marked "A" prefix serial numbered guns.
Again, this appears to be a mismatch of barrel to frame. If Lee authorized these guns, then they would be completely legitimate. They are still considered to be worth less than a Jurras distributed gun.
7. Custom Barrels - Kent Lomont
Kent Lomont was another Auto Mag distributor who also sold a line of custom
barrels. The barrels that Kent sold had his very distinctive animal markings.
The Groundhog .22LMP
The Fox .25LMP
The Cougar .30LMP
The Antelope .357AMP
The Grizzly .41JMP
The Bison .44AMP
8. Custom guns - Bicentennials
In 1976 Harry worked out a deal with B & B sales to create 100 Bicentennial guns. One hundred 8.5", fully ribbed .357AMP barrels were manufactured by the factory for the job. Larry Grossman, at the factory, then hand made four highly polished guns to Harry's specifications. They were USA1776, USA1777, USA1975 and USA1976. Perhaps because it was so labor intensive to produce the Bicentennial guns, these were the only four made in 1976. In 1977 Harry had an outside contractor, Ed O'Neil, produce six more Bicentennial guns. They had USA100 and up serial numbers. The author has found no complete record of the serial numbers that were used. The Bicentennial guns had engraved markings including a Bicentennial bell. The remainder of the custom barrels were marked TDE / OMC and were sold in field grade condition. B & B Sales never received a single Bicentennial gun and threatened to sue the factory.
9. Custom barrels - .45 Win Mag
In July of 1980 the factory, AMT, made up two experimental barrels to test the .45 Win Mag cartridge. Throughout the eighties the author distributed over 100 of these barrels for the factory. The earliest of these AMC Covina barrels came with a Behlert rear sight assembly. The later ones were fitted with Millett rear sight assemblies. The author, as a factory distributor, commissioned several custom barrels from the factory in .45 Win Mag, .44AMP and .41JMP. Some of these custom barrels were highly polished, Mag-na-ported and fitted with scope mounts. A few had laurel wreaths electro etched on either side of the AMC Covina markings.
Mismatch of barrel to frame-General
The serial number ranges used by Auto Mag are not completely reliable in
determining what markings the barrel should have. Great groups of numbers were
skipped to make it appear that production was farther along than it actually
was. Custom numbers could be purchased from the factory and might only contain
the owner's initials. Generally, Pasadena guns run into the three thousands,
North Hollywood guns run into the five thousands and TDE El Monte guns run into
the eight thousands. Distributors, dealers and collectors have switched barrels
and frames for many reasons. A five thousand serial numbered frame with a
Pasadena Barrel could be considered to be a mismatch of barrel to frame. This
would be especially true if the frame did not contain a Pasadena bolt, etc.,
etc. There have been cases of North Hollywood guns first being sold with A017000
serial numbers. Receipts and interviews with the first owners should resolve any
Protect your investment by getting important statements in writing.
Lunch Box Guns
While working gun shows, the author has encountered Auto Mags that were not finished at the factory. These guns are referred to as lunch box guns because a lunch box is used for smuggling the required parts out of the factory by dishonest employees. The serial number markings are either missing or of a completely different style from production guns. Without documentation, lunch box guns are to be avoided.
Reproduction or Fake Parts
The main reason that the Auto Mag was not a financial success was that it
just cost too much to produce. It stands to reason that not much money can be
made by making reproduction parts.
The author has cast many styles of Auto Mag grips over the years. They have always been sold by the author as reproduction grips. Some individuals have resold these grips as original factory or factory custom grips. When these reproduction grips are sold as original grips they become fakes. Words mean things.
Some very fine reproduction magazines have been made by Krasne's Triple K Mfg. in San Diego, California. They have been offered in black and a hard chromed finish. Some people have resold them as factory original magazines.
Again, a fine reproduction part becomes a fake due to a false representation.
Years ago a large numbers of un-welded magazine shells were put up for sale by the sheet metal shop that made them. A small time Auto Mag parts dealer bought them. He made his own very crude followers, had the shells welded and then sold them as original Auto Mag magazines. These magazines are fakes.
The Mag-na-porting of a barrel really helps to reduce recoil and muzzle jump. Lee Jurras and other distributors have provided this on many of their custom barrels. If an individual sent a barrel in to have it Mag-na-ported he has reduced the value of his gun. Mag-na-porting helps the shooter but is a bad thing to the collector if the barrel was not originally sold with this feature.
Scope mounts for the Auto Mag were first offered by Lee Jurras. His earliest Custom Model 200 Internationals were fitted with a custom mount made by Kent Lomont using a Leupold M8 2X scope. Later Internationals, and some of Lees' other custom guns, used Jim Harringshaw's Maxi-Mount scope mount. While a distributor of barrels, the author fitted barrels with both the Maxi-Mount and the T.S.O.B. mount made by J.D. Jones. Unless the scope mount is a clamp-on type, the barrel has to be drilled and tapped to accept the mount. Again, if a scope mount was not fitted to a barrel by a distributor and originally sold this way, the collector value of the barrel has been compromised.
Some individuals have taken it upon themselves to hand polish their guns.
The factory would sometimes polish barrels and frames at the request of a customer. The difference is that after polishing the barrel, the factory would electro-etch the markings back onto the barrel assembly. Backyard polishing jobs will usually entirely remove the markings on the receiver.
Sometimes only a shadow of the factory markings can be seen. Guns found in this condition are worth much less than ones with un-modified finishes.
In conclusion, there are factory custom, dealer or distributor custom, and
customer modified custom guns and barrels. If you were to use custom cars as an
analogy, a car customized in someone's driveway is worth far less than a factory
or distributor customized car. The same holds true with guns. If you are
inclined to buy a custom gun or barrel, insist on letters of authenticity,
receipts or some other documentation.
What do you say to the guy who asks, "Is it original"?
You respond, "What do you mean by original?"
The author wishes to acknowledge the following sources for some of the information used in this writing:
1) L.E. Jurras' Auto Mag Newsletters
2) Handguns magazine 2001 Annual, "Lee Jurras and his Auto Mags," by Rick Maples
3) Hi Standard Pistols & Revolvers 1951 - 1984, by James Spacek
Five Ways To Break Your Auto Mag --- September 1999
by Bruce Stark
As soon as people started shooting Auto Mags, the guns started breaking.
The inventor, Harry Sanford, always blamed the Auto Mag's bad reputation on
people shooting ammo that was way too hot for the gun. "If they wanted a
rifle, they should have bought one," Harry would say.
1. Bad Ammo
The Auto Mag was designed to shoot a semi-auto counterpart to the .44 Magnum. A 240 grain bullet moving at about 1250 feet per second will provide enough recoil to reliably cycle the gun and not beat it to death. There have been several articles published over the years containing Auto Mag reloading specifications. Most of these loads are too hot for the gun. Some of the published loads were intended for large game hunting, and weren't to be used for a weekend's plinking. The older articles were written at a time when a new bolt could be had for $45!
With continued use of hot ammo you will see the bolt lugs chipping or bending rearwards, and the accelerator will begin to mushroom the frame where it strikes it. The mushrooming of the frame can be so severe that it will prevent the barrel from being removed from the frame.
The first available loaded ammo came from CDM in Mexico. The only way to get this ammo to reliably cycle the gun is to lie about it. CDM ammo has dirty powder which makes it inconsistent, and it quickly dirties up your gun with unburned powder. The next available loaded ammo came from Norma in Sweden. Norma ammo is too hot and can't be recommended for extended use in the Auto Mag. Both CDM and Norma ammo have become very collectable and are too expensive to shoot nowadays. Through the years Lee Jurras, Kent Lomont, Bob Beal and several others have cooked up and sold their own Auto Mag ammo. It too has become very collectable. Some of it is hot and some of it is not. Never shoot "mystery" ammo if you value your gun.
Ammunition with the wrong case dimensions for your chamber is also bad ammo. A case that is too long will usually prevent the gun from going into battery. A case that is too short for your chamber can damage your gun.
A properly seated round with the correct case length will allow the bolt face
to sit flush up against the rear of the case. If the case is too short and the
base of the case is not up against the bolt face, the case will recoil into the
bolt face, piercing the primer and maybe breaking the extractor. Sometimes the
spent brass will show an indent where it has slammed into the ejector.
A .357 AMP case of the proper length, but with an improperly located shoulder, can behave the same as a case that is too long or too short. .357 AMP brass must be tailored to your chamber. Know what you are shooting.
2. Loose Recoil Rods
The Auto Mag's recoil rods screw into heli-coils that are located in the cocking piece. The type of heli-coil is a 10-32 screw-lock type. The locking feature of the heli-coil lessens with each removal and replacement of the rods. If any lubricant gets into the heli-coil area, it will also lessen the locking feature.
If the rods become too loose, they will allow the cocking piece to tilt backwards during recoil. When this happens the top ear on the back of the bolt will be broken off, or the top of the cocking piece will be broken out, or both. The heli-coil area must be kept clean and dry. After every magazine of ammo that is shot, the recoil rods should be checked to see if they are coming loose. If the recoil rods need to be tightened after every magazine fired, you need new heli-coils to be installed into your cocking piece. Loctite is a bad idea because you could unscrew the recoil rods and find the heli-coils attached to the end of them. Keep those recoil rods tight!
3. Mag Slam
The Auto Mag's magazine will hold seven rounds. Loading the sixth and seventh round into the magazine can be very difficult. When loading the seventh round into the magazine you will notice that the spring is almost fully compressed. If the bolt is forward in the gun and a full magazine is inserted into the frame, the top round will press into the bottom of the bolt. If you push the magazine into the frame further, to engage the magazine latch, you will compress the magazine spring even more. If you were to slam a fully loaded magazine into a gun with the bolt forward, the chances are pretty good that you will break the floorplate out of the magazine. On original magazines the floorplate is only welded on three sides. Most people only load the magazine with five rounds, and don't slam in a loaded magazine like they are in combat.
4. Bolt Slam
It's not a good idea with any semi-auto weapon to manually feed a round into the chamber and drop the bolt into battery on top of it. The first concern is that the firing pin could come forward when the bolt stops, and the round could go off. With the Auto Mag there is a further concern that you could break the extractor doing this. The extractor slams into the rim of the chambered round and must pivot upwards and then back down to capture the rim. There is a cut in the receiver, barrel extension, specifically made to receive the extractor as it pivots upwards to capture the rim of the chambered round. If this cut is mislocated, or filled with dirt, there is no place for the extractor to go. Also, the whole bolt is rotating while it's trying to pivot and capture the rim of a round that is stationary and seated in the chamber.
5. Poor Lubrication
Stainless steel requires special lubricants. A standard mineral oil will cause stainless steel to gall or catch due to friction. Nowadays there are several off- the-shelf gun oils for stainless steel guns. This wasn't the case when the Auto Mag was first introduced. Then and now people will experiment with exotic oils in their Auto Mags. Some of these oils give great results, but there are concerns other than just a smoothly functioning gun. It might not be all that healthy to have a fine mist of automatic transmission fluid blown back into your face. Some lubes will lock up your gun at temperatures below freezing and others will coagulate with time.
If you don't know what lubricant, or what combination of lubricants, have been used on your Auto Mag, it's a good idea to strip all the lubricants out of the gun. This is best done with a good carburetor cleaner such as Gumout. Remove the grips beforehand so that they won't react to the harsh chemicals.
After a thorough inspection, a modern lubricant can be applied. Two very good
lubricants are Break-Free and FP-10. Do not oil the heli-coils, the firing pin
or the firing pin spring. Do not forget to oil the accelerator.
If you plan on shooting your Auto Mag I have listed the most common ways to damage the gun. Of course you could always just drop your Auto Mag onto a pile of rocks and break the rear sight assembly. The author has personally damaged an Auto Mag using the first three methods, as well as dropping the gun onto a pile of rocks. Learn from other's mistakes.
If you don't plan on shooting your Auto Mag, the worst thing you can do to the gun is to leave it in the case it came in. The foam used by the factory in the black plastic Auto Mag gun case will deteriorate into a black goo that will literally eat away at the stainless steel. It's the pits.
Auto Mag Cartridges --- March 1999
by Bruce Stark
Since the introduction of the .44 Magnum cartridge in 1956
there had been a desire by the shooting public for a semi-automatic version of
this cartridge and a gun to shoot it. In the 1958 Summer edition of Guns and
Ammo a .44 Automatic rimless cartridge was proposed. It had an overall
length of 1.600".
Harry Sanford's plans to produce the Auto Mag handgun, using a .44 Magnum semi-automatic cartridge, were first revealed in an article contained in the March 1970 Guns and Ammo magazine. Harry's new .44AMP (Auto Mag Pistol) cartridge had a 1.298" case length and was the same overall length as the .44 Magnum, 1.610". In the same article several other proposed cartridges are mentioned: the 9mm-44 Auto, .30-44 Auto and a .36-44 Auto. There is talk in the article of reducing the .44AMP case length to 1.200" but it never happened.
Auto Mag Corp., in Pasadena California, made up three barrels to test the new .357AMP cartridge. The case was produced by simply necking down a .44AMP case and reaming it to accept a .357 bullet. It proved very successful and was well hailed by all who tested it. The tapered cartridge helped in feeding and it seated on the shoulder which helped the accuracy. The .357 bullets that were made at the time were not designed to work at the speeds that the Auto Mag could achieve. Sometimes the jackets were ripped off of the bullets and remained in the barrel. Before the company's bankruptcy one barrel was made up to test the .30 caliber Auto Mag cartridge. It was named the .300AMP. It had a shoulder angle of 30 degrees. There were also five Auto Mags made up to fire .45ACP Hardball ammo.
During the North Hollywood production run of Auto Mags, .357AMP and .44AMP chambered Auto Mags were offered for sale.
For a period of time, during the El Monte days, Lee Jurras was the exclusive distributor of Auto Mags. In September of 1974 Lee introduced the .41JMP (Jurras Magnum Pistol) cartridge in a 1.610" overall length. The .41JMP had a shoulder that was too shallow to seat on. Like the .44AMP, the .41JMP seated on the mouth.
In the mid-seventies Kent Lomont created several wildcat calibers for the Auto Mag handgun. He also made unique barrels and scope mounts that Lee Jurras used on some of his custom guns. Kent offered custom barrels chambered in .22LMP (Lomont Magnum Pistol), .25LMP and .30LMP. The .30LMP had a 20 degree shoulder as opposed to the 30 degrees of the .300AMP cartridge. Kent also made custom barrels in .357AMP, .41JMP and .44AMP and gave them his own custom markings. He originally wanted to use different dinosaurs for the different calibers but he couldn't find the artwork for it. He eventually used different animals for each of the calibers and had pictures of them electro etched on the receivers (barrel extensions). Each animal represented an appropriate animal that could be shot with that caliber. Kent also experimented with a barrel chambered for the .45ACP Magnum. All of Kent Lomont's Auto Mag cartridges were a 1.610" overall length.
Kent's animal designations are as follows;
.44AMP Bison Model 180
.41JMP Grizzly Model 170
.357AMP Antelope Model 160
.30LMP Cougar Model 150
.25LMP Fox Model 140
.22LMP Groundhog Model 130
Robert Barbasiewicz was the project engineer during the developmental period of the Auto Mag. In the early seventies he made up custom barrels in .44 and .357AMP. They were highly polished with no markings in 6.5", 8.5" and 10.5" lengths with no rib. In 1979 the .45 Winchester Magnum cartridge was introduced for the Wildey handgun. The author and Ed O'Neil approached Harry Sanford about him making up some Auto Mag barrels to shoot it. Harry said no. We approached Bob Barbasiewicz and he agreed to make up ten 10.5" barrels chambered in .45 Win Mag.
The .45 Win Mag cartridge had a case length of 1.198" and an overall length of 1.575". The shorter overall length adds to chambering problems. Any feeding problem results in the cartridge getting caught sideways in the receiver.
In July of 1980 the factory, AMT, made up two experimental .45ACP magnum barrels to test the .45ACP Magnum and .45 Win Mag cartridges. One barrel was 8.5" and the other was 10.5" long. When using Winchester .45 Win Mag ammo, it was determined that the barrel would have to be 10.5" long in order to develop the velocities required to cycle the gun. When .45 Win Mag cartridges were shot in the .45ACP Magnum chambered barrel, case separations were quite common.
In October of 1990, Eric Kincel, a writer at Gun World magazine, and Brian Maynard, a technician working in the service department at AMT, came up with a new Auto Mag cartridge. It was the .40KMP (Kincel Maynard Pistol). It used a 40 caliber bullet and seated on its 45 degree shoulder. It had a shorter overall length of 1.600".
In the first issue, November 1997, of George Hebert's The Auto Mag Newsletter, there is a picture of an Auto Mag chambered to shoot a .475 bullet. It was also made by Brian Maynard.
9) .45ACP Magnum
10) .45 Win Mag
12) .475 Auto Mag
Most Auto Mag shooters have found that the .357AMP with an 8.5" barrel is the best caliber and barrel length combination for the Auto Mag. Kent Lomont likes the .30LMP with a 10.5" barrel. Getting the smaller calibers to cycle the gun has always been a challenge. Modified accelerators, lightened barrels and heavy bullets will usually get the gun cycling OK.
There have also been some shot-shell cartridges made for the Auto Mag. They usually have to be fed through the ejection port and will not cycle the gun. The CLINT-2- gun that was used in the movie "Sudden Impact" was modified to shoot blank cartridges of custom manufacture.